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Kingdom of the Vienna Congress of 1815. The rights of Poland re-
garding " territories to the East of that line " were "distinctly reserved."*
It was clear that should the Soviets prove victorious in the Civil War.,
Britain intended to push them as far Eastward as possible.
In such an event, the idea of the dismemberment of Russia would have
been welcomed by the Western Democracies. With this in mind, they
did not immediately confer Eastern Galicia to Poland., since they hoped
it could be part of an independent Ukrainian State extending from Lwow
to the Caucasus. Fear of a victorious Communism was to effect the issue,
and Germany was given grace; simultaneously, however, there was great
alarm in the camp of the Entente at the prospect of a German-Soviet
rapprochement. The post-Versailles British Ambassador in Berlin, Lord
d'Abernon, reviewed the opinion of the British rulers, writing :—
" It was apparent to those who took a world view that Western civilisation
was menaced by an external danger which, coining into being during the
war, threatened a cataclysm equalled only by the fall of the Roman Empire.
This danger arose from the sweeping success in 1917 of the revolution
against the Tsarist regime and the establishment in Russia of a fanatical
Communist Government . . . there is little doubt that a blind persistence
in the policy of maintaining the war grouping of the Allies against Germany
would eventually have led to Germany being forced into close alliance with
Russia . . . An Asiatic revolt under German direction against established
institutions and supported by German industry and science may be con-
sidered an unnatural combination. But were it to come into being, the
danger to European civilisation would be dire in the extreme ... In the
presence of such (Communist) forces no solution of the European problem
could be tolerated by English statesmen which threatened the exclusion of
Germany from the European combination and left her a prey to Russian
wiles and Russian influence . . . "f
When Poland survived the Red invasion and not only survived, but
arrested the invader, it was Churchill in England who wrote the following
enthusiastic account. *e The condition of the Dark Ages had advanced
from the Urals to the Pripet Marshes, but there it was written * so far and
no further.' "
After the Soviet regime had been established in Russia, the London
diplomats came to the conclusion that it was pointless to wait any longer
* Declaration of the Supreme Council of the Allied and Associated Powers.
Les principales Puissances allie'es et assocides, ayant reconnu qujil importe de
faire cesser le plus tot possible T£tat actuel d'incertitude politique dans laqueile se
trouve la nation polonaise, et sans prejuger des stipulations ulterieurs devant fixer
les frontieres orientales definitives de la Pologne, declarent reconnaitre des £
present le droit du Gouvernement polonais de proceder, dans les termes pr£cedem-
ment preVus par le Traite" du 28 juin 1919 avec la Pologne, a F organisation d*une
administration reguliere des territoires de Tancien Empire de Russie situes &
Touest de la ligne ci-dessous decrite (voir la carte). ...
Les droits que la Pologne pourrait avoir a faire valoir sur les territoires sitnes
a Test de la dite ligne sont expressement reserves.
Fait a Paris, le 8 decembre, 1919*
Le president du Conseil Supreme des Puissances Alliees et As$ocie"es3
G. Clemenceau.
t The Diary of an Ambassador: Versailles to Rapallo, 1920-1922, New York
1929, p. 21.